Turkey, hosting the world's best story, a fascinating piece of land settlements have always been throughout history. The vast plains irrigated by the rivers, unconventional formations on the earth formed by the volcanic mountains, places decorated with thousands of years of historical heritage, exquisite beaches and coves, mountains and hills dressed with forests ...
Turkey's Geographical Structure
Turkey is the total area of 783,562 sq. km. The coun-try consists of the smaller western and European region of Thrace and the larger eastern and Asian region of Anatolia. Turkey shares borders with Syria, Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Georgia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Azerbaijan. Summers are hot and dry, winters mild and wet.
Turkey making up the old world Europe, Asia, and Africa were the nearest to each other and located at a point they embrace Asia and Europe. Due to its geographical location, Anatolia, which is the mainland, witnessed the mass migration of the masses of people, which led to the formation of history. Anatolia, the owner of too many civilizations to count, developed a combination of cultures that were connected to each other but affected by each other.
Common features of Turkey are as follows:
It is surrounded by seas on three sides.
The average elevation is high. Therefore, the difference between the actual temperatures and the reduced temperatures is high.
It is close to economically rich European countries.
It has important straits and trade routes.
The landforms are varied. At the same time, 4 seasons features can be experienced.
Underground and surface resources are rich and varied.
It is the bridge connecting three continents.
International is a member of different organizations.
Different climate features are seen together.
The management policy Turkey
Turkey is a form of government founded the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923 by proclamation of the republic after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It was declared a republic form of government in Turkey.
The People of Turkey
Life Expectancy: 72 years
Languages: Turkish, Kurdish, and other minority languages
Literacy: 87.4% (men: 95.3%, women: 79.6%)
Ethnicity: Turkish 70-75%, Kurdish 18%, other minorities 7-12%
Religion: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% The Importance of Turkey
Due to the geographical location, Turkey is situated in the remains of many civilizations. This feature is in Turkey with the location of an open-air museum.
Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empire, Turkey was following the date of this empire. These historical ruins are located in Istanbul, Ephesus, and Cappadocia.
In addition to the historical ruins, it is a region where tourists are intensively visited in the Mediterranean region, which is a very important region in summer tourism.
Turkey is also rich in terms of natural beauty, Pamukkale travertine Afyon spas, Urgup, Goreme, and Avanos fairy chimneys and the importance of winter activities in Uludağ, Erciyes, Erzurum Palandöken.
Turkey General Information
Basic Informations About Turkey
Turkey's Cities and Regions
Spoken Languages in Turkey
Turkey Religion and Beliefs
Turkey Brief History
Best Time to Visit Turkey
Climate and Weather in Turkey
Things to buy in Turkey
Basic Informations About Turkey
Official Name: Republic of Turkey
National Anthem: Istiklal Marsi (Independence March)
Founder: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
The system of Government: Republican parliamentary democracy
President: Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Area: 783.562 square kilometers
Coastal Length: 7.200 km
Coastal Borders: the Mediterranean Sea at the south, the Aegean Sea at west, the Black Sea at the north
Capital City: Ankara
Religion: Muslim 99%
Neighboring Countries: Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia, Iraq, Armenia, Iran, Syria
Currency: Turkish Lira (TL) 1TL = 100 kr
Number of Cities: 81
Victory Day: 30 August
Rebuplic Day: 29 October
Largest Cities: Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana, Antalya, Konya, Bursa, Kayseri, Samsun, Trabzon, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Kocaeli, Diyarbakir, Sakarya, Mersin, Gaziantep
Electricity in Turkey: In Turkey, the power plugs and sockets are of type F. The standard voltage is 220 V and the standard frequency is 50Hz.
Credit Cards in Turkey: In Turkey, you can use Visa, Mastercard, Maestro, and American Express.
Using traveler's checks in Turkey: Exchanging Traveller’s Checks in Turkey is difficult and will come with very high fees.
Foreign currency valid in Turkey: Dollar, Euro, and Pound is most popular.
Lifestyle: Turkish lifestyle is a vivid mosaic; juxtaposing the Occident and the Orient, the ancient and the modern.
Hospitality: Hospitality is a cornerstone of Turkish culture, and Turks believe that visitors should be treated as Guests sent by God.
Cuisine: Turkish cuisine is renowned as one of the world's best.
Weather: It is said that all of the four seasons exist in Turkey.
Tourism: Turkey has so much to offer her visitors, therefore this country has recently become one of the world's most popular tourist destinations.
Time Zone: GMT +3 hours (April-September) GMT +2 hours (October-March), CET
Turkey's Cities and Regions
Turkey has seven regions. Mediterranean Region, Eastern Anatolia Region, Aegean Region, Southeastern Anatolia Region, Central Anatolia Region, Marmara Region, and Black Sea Region.
Mediterranean Region: Adana, Antalya, Burdur, Hatay, Isparta, Kahramanmaras, Mersin, Osmaniye
Eastern Anatolia Region: Agri, Ardahan, Bingol, Bitlis, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Hakkari, Igdir, Kars, Malatya, Mus, Tunceli, Van
Aegean Sea Region: Afyonkarahisar, Aydin, Denizli, Izmir, Kutahya, Manisa, Mugla, Usak
Southeastern Anatolia Region: Adıyaman, Batman, Diyarbakır, Gaziantep, Mardin, Siirt, Sanliurfa, Sirnak, Kilis
Central Anatolia Region: Aksaray, Ankara, Cankiri, Eskisehir, Karaman, Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirsehir, Konya, Nevsehir, Nigde, Sivas, Yozgat
Marmara Region: Balikesir, Bilecik, Bursa, Canakkale, Edirne, Istanbul, Kirklareli, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Tekirdag, Yalova
Black Sea Region: Amasya, Artvin, Bartin, Bayburt, Bolu, Corum, Duzce, Giresun, Gumushane, Karabuk, Kastamonu, Ordu, Rize, Samsun, Sinop, Tokat, Trabzon, Zonguldak
Spoken Languages in Turkey
Turkey's main and official language is Turkish. However, a total of 36 languages are spoken. Most of them are Kurdish, Abaza, Arabic, and Greek. In tourism regions, people speak English as a foreign language.
If you are planning a travel to Turkey and if you know English you will have no difficulty agreed with the local population.
Religion and Beliefs in Turkey
Turkey is a secular state, so there is no official religion in the country. There are laws in the Republic of Turkey on the matter of freedom of religion and belief. 96 percent of the country's population is Muslim population.
This is followed by the Christian and Jewish population.
Turkish people are sensitive to their faith, you should pay attention to some things while in Turkey.
Do not wear short dresses such as shorts, mini-skirts while visiting religious places, mosques, and tombs. Cover your head with a veil.
In the month of Ramadan, local people is fasting, do not eat things like food and drink on the street.
Turkey Brief History
The first settlement on the territory of Turkey is located on Aioli, Door and Ionians, Thracians and was launched in Paleolithic societies such as by Persians. Then III. The Hellenistic period and later the Roman and Byzantine periods took place with the rule of Alexandros. As a result of the settlement of the Seljuks in Anatolia in the 11th century, the Turkification movement began on the land and the Byzantine superiority in Anatolia lost power in favor of the Turks with the victory after the Battle of Malazgirt in 1071.
After the collapse of the Seljuks, the Anatolian Seljuks ruled the region until the Mongol invasion in 1243. After the invasion, many small Turkish clans were formed in Anatolia. The Ottomans, one of these principalities, became the rulers of Anatolia since the end of the 13th century. In addition, Southeast Europe has gained great power in Eurasia and Africa by establishing a large empire with territories on West Asia and North Africa. After the 17th century, the Ottoman Empire began to decline. Then succumbed empire was destroyed in World War II, as a result of the War of Independence against the occupying forces in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk founded the Republic of Turkey.
When to Go Turkey
The four seasons can be experienced in different corners of the unique geography and unique at the same time suitable period to visit Turkey varies depending on the area to be visited. You should also not ignore the cost if you think about planning a trip to Turkey. There are two seasons in Turkey.
High Season: Hotel and tour prices are high. From mid-April to mid-September.
Low Season: Hotel and tour prices are reasonable. Spring and autumn are the best time.
Istanbul is one of the most visited cities, you should visit Istanbul in the best spring and autumn. Accommodation and tour prices are cheaper and the city is not too crowded.
Cappadocia; The city, which is very crowded during the mid-spring and summer months, is also expensive in terms of cost. Autumn and the first spring should prefer.
Izmir Ephesus which is not cold in winter will be cheaper in terms of cost. Spring and autumn months can be preferred.
Preferred for winter sports, Palandöken, Uludağ, Erciyes, such as centers in January and February.
The Black Sea Region is rainy during most of the year. It is convenient to visit during the transition periods such as late spring and early autumn.
On the Aegean coast, the season is short, which is suitable for visiting during the summer months, especially in July and August.
In the Mediterranean region, the season for sea tourism in Antalya is spread between May and November.
Climate and Weather in Turkey
Turkey has three different climate types by region.
Mediterranean climate: It is more effective in the Mediterranean Region, Aegean Region, and Marmara Region. Summers are hot and dry, winters are warm and rainy.
Black Sea Climate: Black Sea Region is seen in the coastal areas. It is rainy every season. Rain falls more in winter. The vegetation is lush forests.
Continental Climate: Summers are hot and dry. Winters are cold and snowy. It can be seen in Eastern Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia Regions and Inner Western Anatolia Section of Aegean Region. Best Time to Visit Istanbul
The best time to visit Istanbul is the spring and summer months. However, in these months, as the season is high season, accommodation and tour prices are high. The best time is the beginning of autumn and spring.
Best Time to Visit Cappadocia
Since Turkey Cappadocia hot summers and cold winters, spring and autumn seasons by default prove to the best time to pay a visit to Cappadocia. The months from April to May and from September to mid-November experience pleasant weather that is perfect for sightseeing in Cappadocia, and also for other outdoor activities such as hiking. It is best to avoid the months from July to September as tourist footfall increase considerably during this time, making the tourist spots in Cappadocia overcrowded and accommodation and conveyance expensive.
Best Time to Visit Ephesus
Ephesus in Turkey hot in the summer and cool and rainy in winter. Accommodation, air tickets, and tour prices are high in summer, so visiting Ephesus in autumn or spring is the most logical option.
It will be cheaper to choose these seasons as it is more suitable for autumn and spring accommodations, air tickets and tour prices. In addition, tourist areas will be reduced in crowds.
Top-Rated Tourist Attractions in Turkey
Turkey is located on the continents of Asia and Europe and because of this geographical location, it is a country where Europe and Eastern culture are experienced together. It has an important historical background in which many empires and religions have lived throughout history. And it is a country where you can follow the traces of these empires and religions in every location. Turkey's most important tourist destinations: Istanbul, Cappadocia, Ephesus, the Black Sea, and the east of Turkey. Each region has a different history.
Best Istanbul City Tours & Bosphorus Cruises
One of the most popular activities you can do in Istanbul is the
guided Istanbul Sultanahmet tour. Another important location is the Istanbul Bosphorus, the most popular activity you can do on the Bosphorus is the Bosphorus cruise.
The Best Activities to Do in Cappadocia
One of the most popular activities you can do in Cappadocia, which is known as the land of beautiful horses, is the
Cappadocia guided tour where you can see the world-famous fairy chimneys, magnificent valleys, and underground cities and follow the traces of history. If you want to see this history and fairy chimneys from the sky, the best tour you can join is the Cappadocia Balloon tour.
The Best Activities to Do in Ephesus
Ephesus Ancient City is one of the most important settlements of the ancient world and one of the most famous ancient cities in the world. It is known that the ancient city of Ephesus was founded here in the early times and that the Artemis cult, which is the continuation of the Mother Goddess cult of Anatolia, was an important temple center and even people made a pilgrimage here in ancient times. The most popular activity you can do in İzmir Ephesus is a
guided tour of the ancient city of Ephesus and a visit to the House of Virgin Mary.
Traditional Turkish Culture
One of the most important features of Turks is their hospitality. They make an elaborate effort to make the guests feel at home under any circumstances. At the same time, Turks attach great importance to national values and pay attention to keep these values alive. One of these values is holidays. Feast in Turkey says love, peace, tolerance, and coexistence means. When the national holidays come, the people spend these days with great enthusiasm. Folk dances and music are indicators of Turkish culture.
Another indicator of Turkish culture is traditional arts and crafts. In almost every region of Turkey, it has produced very valuable handicrafts unique to itself. This attracts great interest from the tourists. Turkey attracts the attention of tourists, and the first thing that comes to mind is the mention of the traditional Turkish cuisine. Turkish cuisine is a kitchen with a wide variety of riches. The flavors that have survived from the Ottoman palaces to the present day have become the most popular dishes in the world. It's a unique experience to live in a busy kitchen is the demand of tourists to Turkey each year.
The characteristics of Turkish culture are as follows:
Turkish culture is based on very old, so is rooted.
The effects of the old nomadic life are seen in today's life.
Since it is in interaction with many nations throughout history, it contains traces of other cultures.
Turks have contributed to other cultures as they spread over a wide geography.
The names of grandparents are given to children.
People have adjectives and nicknames.
Valor and morality are the most important concepts and it is social evidence that men have certain tasks. Respect for adults is always very important.
Being patriotic and hospitable is one of the most basic characteristics of the Turks. Turkish culture requires tolerance and respect.
Turkish cuisine is a common treasure of Turkish, Greek, Jewish, Armenian, Arab, Circassian, Azerbaijani, Kurdish and Turkmen nations who lived in the same geography for centuries. The natural mosaic formed by the growing and migrants born in this geography has made Turkish cuisine one of the most diverse and rich cuisines in the world. Especially in the Ottoman period, a multicultural taste feast has emerged in every sense with the effects of Greek, Armenian, Jewish, Circassian, Kurdish, Turkmen and Azeri influences.
The most popular dishes of Turkey Kitchen
Leading dishes of Turkish cuisine. Here are Turkish dishes that everyone should try…
Adana and Urfa kebabs
Cag Kebab (Çağ Kebap)
Raw meatballs (Çiğ Köfte)
Bread with meat (Etli Ekmek)
Anchovy Pan (Hamsi Tava)
Stuffed meatballs (İçli Köfte)
Haricot bean (Kuru Fasülye)
Lamb tandoori (Kuzu Tandır)
Stuffed Leaf (Yaprak Dolması)
Sac Kavurma (Saç Kavurma)
Pottery kebab (Testi Kebabı)
Turkish delight (Türk Lokumu)
Black Tea (Çay)
Turkish coffee (Türk Kahvesi)
Things to buy in Turkey
Turkish coffee: Definitely the first gift is Turkish Coffe. We recommend Kurukahveci Mehmet Efendi because this is a branded product. A freshly grounded Turkish coffee will smell your suitcase a little, but we guarantee you will not regret the result. In the meantime, you may also need to buy a coffee pot and a cup of Turkish coffee for foreigners who will meet Turkish coffee for the first time.
Apple Tea: with its magnificent taste and smell, apple tea is a product that should take as a gift.
Baklava and Turkish Delight; By taking strong packaging, you can take it as a gift to your friends in your country.
During your trip to Cappadocia, you can taste the most delicious wines of the region and then buy it for yourself and your loved ones. Then you can show your skills in the pottery and ceramic workshops and get the pots you make with your own hands. In gift shops you can also buy miniature fairy chimneys which will hit you most.
Carpet and rug: Hand-woven carpet from silk yarn will be a very good gift choice. But since it is a bit expensive, you can take it for yourself instead of a gift.
Hookah: You can use a stylish design of a hookah as an ornament in a corner of your home even if you don't drink it. For your friends it will bee a good gift option.
If you want to take the gift cheap way, you can buy magnet, mug and miniature city models.
Shopping in Cappadocia